An Overview of China’s Nuclear Industry

2017-10-27 Ocean Nuclear

General situation of China's nuclear industry system

1. Definition and content of nuclear industry

The nuclear industry encompasses all industries related to atomic energy. The major tasks of the nuclear industry are to produce nuclear fuel, radioisotope production and to construct nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants, nuclear power generation (power generation and heating) and nuclear weapons.

The nuclear industry itself is a very complicated and highly technical industrial system. The process of a single enterprise in the system is also very complicated. The technology requirements are high, and the amount of investment in scientific research and construction is large. At present, only a few countries have complete technical system of nuclear power industry, and other countries and regions mainly rely on the introduction of nuclear power.

2. Review of the development of China's nuclear industry

China's nuclear industry was founded in 1955. In 1950, the Institute of modern physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences was set up, and the research work of nuclear science and technology was carried out. In October 16, 1964, our country's first atomic bomb exploded successfully. The first hydrogen bomb exploded in June 17, 1967. In December 26, 1970, China launched its first nuclear submarine.

On the civil front, in early 70s, China carried out research and design work on nuclear power plants. In June 1983, China's first self designed 300 thousand KW nuclear power plant, "Qinshan Phase 1" broke ground. Subsequently, the introduction of French technology, construction in Guangdong, Dayawan Province, 2 x 900 thousand kilowatts of large nuclear power plants.

Chinese nuclear industry first pioneering achievements, mainly reflected in two aspects: one is the successful development of the "two bombs and one boat two is established a complete industrial system of nuclear technology.

3. Overview of China's existing nuclear industry system

The development of nuclear weapons:

China now not only has a variety of atomic bomb, the hydrogen bomb, bomb and other strategic nuclear arsenals, beginning from the middle of 60s, China has successfully developed medium range, long-range and intercontinental and submarine missile launch system, established a strong strategic missile forces.

The nuclear fuel supply:

 nuclear fuel system has initially formed a complete scientific research and production system. The nuclear fuel element has been nationalized and serialized. Now, China's nuclear fuel industry system has the capacity to meet the needs of the nuclear arsenal and nuclear power industry.

Nuclear power development:

China's nuclear power development in the research and development of nuclear power technology, engineering design, equipment manufacturing, construction, operation and management and other aspects, formed a team with experienced technical and management personnel.

Industrial radiation product development and ancillary industries in industrial radiation products:

Domestic nuclear industry system of each department of national economy is to provide a variety of radioactive isotope products, isotope instruments and radiation technique of nuclear technology. The development of the nuclear industry has also promoted the development of many new fields of science, such as radiation chemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation dosimetry, nuclear medicine, nuclear electronics, etc.

Daily radiation applications:

Radiation processing technology and products have been widely used in daily life.

4. The importance of nuclear energy

Nuclear energy is a safe energy, at present, China nuclear power has built 11 units. The operation data show that the operation performance and safety record of China's nuclear power is good, the operation level is improving, the main operating characteristic parameters of mean data were higher than that of the world nuclear power plant operation parameters.

Nuclear energy is clean energy and nuclear activity seldom produces or does not produce these pollutants. From a global perspective, the world's primary energy consumption of 7% of nuclear energy will decrease about 20 tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year.

The initial investment of nuclear power station is high, but the operation cost is very low, and the design life of nuclear power station is generally 40~60 years. The economy of nuclear power plants is not obvious in the first 10 years of life, but the operation in the following decades will be incomparable to other power plants.

Present situation of China's nuclear power industry

1. Basic situation of China's nuclear power industry

The Chinese government plans that by 2020, the installed capacity of nuclear power will reach 58GW in transit, and 30GW under construction. From 2002 to 2015, China has completed the construction and operation of 28 new nuclear power plants. At present, there are 33 units in operation, 22 units under construction, including 4 AP1000 nuclear power units (the world's first reactor) and high temperature gas cooled reactor demonstration power plant, also plans to build more units, will begin within three years. In addition, China has begun exporting its own reactor designs, and the research and development of China's nuclear reactor technology is good.

At present, China's nuclear power in the total amount of electricity is still low, accounting for only about 3%, still far below the global average of 11%, the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development space is enormous. Along with our country with completely independent intellectual property rights of the three generation million kilowatt nuclear power technology "Hualong No.1" continue to go out of the country, with the national "The Belt and Road" strategy, export a nuclear power generating units and the subsequent supply of fuel, operation support, the units of the entire life cycle can earn100 billion yuan.

The development of nuclear power will bring great impetus to the rapid development of nuclear power equipment industry. In the next 10 years, the total investment scale of China's nuclear power will be as high as 1 trillion yuan, of which the domestic nuclear power equipment manufacturers will share about 320 billion yuan market..

According to China's nuclear power industry development plan, by 2020, the total installed capacity of nuclear power should reach 40 million kilowatts, 18 million kilowatts under construction.In the "13th Five-Year" period, according to industry estimates of nuclear power construction total investment of nearly 500 billion yuan; among them, in the spent fuel processing operation of nuclear power generation, the treatment cost per ton of 1 million 670 thousand yuan terms, will give rise to 10 billion yuan in the market space.

2. Nuclear power development plan of China

2005-2020 year plan:In transit 40 million kilowatts, 18 million kilowatts under construction

2012-2020 year plan:In transit 58 million kilowatts, 30 million kilowatts under construction

By 2020, 48 million kilowatts had been shipped, with a gap of 10 million kilowatts

2014-2015 years,to build at least 10 million kilowatts. In case of 1 million kilowatts a unit, China need to build about 10 units.

2016-2020, the construction of 30 million kilowatts, 30 units, about 6 per year.

Namely: 2014-2020, the construction of nuclear power should be about 5-6 units per year.

But: excluding international projects

3. China already has the condition of developing nuclear power energetically

China's nuclear industry has nuclear power research and design team with complete knowledge of nuclear power, and has formed design management and interface control procedures and quality management system. The team has grasped  some mature foreign nuclear power design technology;

China's nuclear industry has established a professional nuclear scientific research system, training a high level of nuclear power research team, has been built with the international standards of large-scale nuclear power technology test base, with independent development ability and the ability to absorb foreign advanced technology, basically can meet the needs of independent design, and provide a strong guarantee for the progress and the subsequent development of nuclear power technology.
Both domestic projects and foreign projects have established a standardized corporate governance structure, and the project owners are fully responsible for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Good results have been achieved in the three aspects of quality, schedule and investment, and valuable experience has been accumulated.

At present, the basic ability has gained to process and manufacture most of the nuclear island equipment and the main equipment.

In order to meet the sustained economic development, according to the NDRC and the national home appliance network company planning and requirements, the national total installed capacity of electricity in 2010 and 2020, need to reach 600 million kilowatts and nearly 1 billion kilowatts.
Introduction of major nuclear power stations in China

1. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

Dayawan nuclear power plant is invested by the Guangdong nuclear power  company and built by the Famatong company, it has 2 x 900 thousand KW power. It was put into commercial operation in 1993, and the annual generating capacity of two units was up to 10 billion degrees.

2. Qinshan Phase I nuclear power plant

Qinshan Phase 1 nuclear power plant is the first pilot reactor nuclear power station designed and constructed in China with power of 1 * 300 thousand kw. The success of Qinshan nuclear power station has enabled us to independently design and build small power nuclear power plants.

3. Qinshan phase three nuclear power plant

Qinshan phase three nuclear power station is a CANDU heavy water pressurized reactor. It was invested, designed, constructed and operated by Canadian Atomic Energy Co., Ltd.. After 20 years of operation, property rights and management belong to china. Qinshan phase three nuclear power plant is 2 * 700 thousand kilowatts.

4. Tianwan nuclear power plant in Jiangsu

Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is invested and built by Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corp, with the use of two sets of Russian produced VVER - 1000 PWR nuclear power unit. The power is 2 * 1 million kw.

Introduction of Chinese Nuclear Power Enterprises

1. Nuclear fuel and raw material manufacturing enterprises

Guangdong Oriental zirconium industry Polytron Technologies Inc was founded in 1995, is a professional engaged in zirconium series products research and development, production and management of national key high-tech enterprise, is China's zirconium industry leading technology, the size of the top, the most core competitiveness and comprehensive competitiveness of enterprises, one of the manufacturers is the world's most complete variety of zirconium products.

The company has a total of five production bases, with an annual total output value of more than one billion.

The company has completed the product chain and technological chain spanning, completed a complete and perfect zirconium industry chain, into the nuclear power, nuclear power industry, and strive for the realization of nuclear power equipment and nuclear power materials localization and make contributions.

In 2016, the company produced an annual output of 20 thousand tons of high-purity chlorine zirconium oxide project officially put into operation. This project will greatly improve the company's high purity zirconium oxychloride production capacity, and meet the company's downstream zirconium production, and release upstream material zirconium oxychloride demand, and help companies improve the market competitiveness of each product.

The company and its subsidiaries, Rui Ming, zirconium signed the asset shares agreement with the Australia listed company Image Resources Ltd.Rui Ming zirconium industry has become the largest shareholder of Image, the completion of this transaction, marks a major breakthrough upstream integration strategy, with overseas high-quality rare earth resources ,the company will fill the domestic manufacturers demand gap.

2. Nuclear power equipment manufacturing enterprises

China first heavy industry group company (referred to as one heavy group), was founded in 1954, is China's nuclear island equipment leader, the international advanced nuclear island equipment suppliers and service providers.

China first heavy industry group company  vigorously promote nuclear industrial products, technology and market development, has become an important global supplier of both nuclear and nuclear island casting and forging a complete set of equipment manufacturing capacity.

China first heavy industry group company is the first domestic development and production of nuclear power equipment company, is the largest supplier of nuclear power forgings, nuclear reactor pressure more than 70% containers of nuclear forgings, nuclear power plants currently under construction, more than 80% of the Chinese by a heavy production, strong push the safe and efficient development of national nuclear power industry.

Shanghai electric group Limited by Share Ltd is one of China's comprehensive equipment manufacturing industry group. The leading industries are energy equipment, industrial equipment and modern service industry.

Shanghai electric made China's first 300 thousand KW nuclear power unit.

Shanghai Electric has 4 state-level and 14 municipal enterprise technical centers, 2 national accredited laboratories, 2 key laboratories in industry, 4 municipal engineering research centers, and 39 high-tech enterprises in Shanghai". With Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of power generation equipment research institute, Huaneng Group, a research consortium, cooperation in the development of more than 200 research projects, set up 5 "Shanghai electric academy studio and 6 graduate work room.

In 2015, Shanghai electric Nuclear signed a contract to build South Africa KOEBERG nuclear power plant, marking the Shanghai nuclear has made significant progress in overseas markets, and promote the Shanghai nuclear power "going out" has important strategic significance. Project investment is about 83 billion U.S. dollars, which is the largest investment in the history of South Africa's nuclear power.


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